Dec 31, 2006

Origins and Nature of Self-Concept

The self-concept is a very interesting aspect of human psychology. It shapes how the individual views his relations with the world and reflects his overall quality of being. The self-concept is basically a set of ideas about oneself: who you are as a person, and your place in the world, society, and the lives of people around you. One's self-concept can be a positive force that leads the individual to activities that he is likely to be successful in. But it can also be a restraining force that guides him to repeated failures. Most often self-concept contains a combination of the positive and negative.

The self-concept is a conglomeration that forms and evolves without people's conscious involvement. You cannot willfully add to or modify your self-concept through mental effort. The self-concept consists of self-descriptions that are the result of deeply felt experiences repeated over an extended period of time. Hence, the only way to change self-concept seems to be to experience new life circumstances that produce a qualitatively different set of deeply felt experiences.

In youth and early adulthood qualititative changes in life circumstances occur frequently as one moves out of the home, goes to college, lives with many different people, tries new jobs, etc. However, as soon as people settle down at a long-term job, get married, have children, and take out long-term loans, the rigidity of one's life circumstances skyrockets. As I see it, this is why psychologist Eric Berne considers youth a time of "rehearsing" our scripts - or life scenarios built around a self-concept - and adulthood and maturity the time when we play out our scripts "for real."

Late is always better than never, but obviously the best time to iron out a healthy and positive self-concept is in one's youth, so that the "big decisions" that determine so much of the rest of adult life are made under the influence of that self-concept. Serious changes in one's life circumstances and self-concept can occur at any age; the probability of them just goes down year by year.

To talk about self-concept and how it evolves, we need to introduce a sense of the time scale of the experiences that shape it. Short-range experiences describe the individual's relationships with the world over the past few days or weeks as he satisfies his immediate needs, completes work or study assignments, and participates in one-time activities. Medium-range experiences describe stable relationships with the world over the individual's current stage of life - usually defined by one's work situation, living situation, and intimate relationships. Long-range experiences form over the span of years and describe the ways things "always seem to happen" - in other words, one's attitudes to work, relationships, love, and life in general.

Obviously, it is long-range experiences that shape self-concept. People can have very good or very bad short-range experiences that do not influence their self-concept at all, and even medium-range experiences do not create a lasting effect. Only when the individual senses deep down that his relationships with the world have changed permanently does his self-concept shift.

In the formation of self-concept, extra weight is attached to long-range experiences from one's childhood and one's relationships with one's parents. It takes a great deal of qualitatively different life experience to override that baggage (whether it is positive or negative). Unfortunately, the quality of one's long-range childhood experiences is, in essence, a matter of luck, which means that a good part of one's self-concept is the result of chance. Not all of self-concept, of course, since it is the result of the interaction between the person and his environment, and many of the person's traits are inborn and tend to produce similar interaction with different environments.

In light of this discussion, we should now have an idea of which circumstances are likely to impact self-concept, and which are not:

Will impact self-concept:

  • a new long-term close friendship
  • a string of positive and "successful" love relationships, or one such long-term, stable relationship
  • strained relationships with your bosses at several jobs in a row
  • leaving home and learning to provide for yourself
Will not impact self-concept:
  • an average course of psychological counselling
  • reading a book on how to change your self-concept
  • a project well-done at work or school
  • trying to be nicer to your teenage son or daughter

Dec 30, 2006

Information Aspects as Building Blocks of Interaction

A lot is happening behind the scenes when two people communicate. Not only are they exchanging verbal information on or around a certain topic, but they are jumping from information aspect to information aspect and sending each other signals from different functions that affect the other person in certain ways. These subtle interactions can be easily observed and studied if you focus your attention on them; otherwise they go unnoticed.

In brief, businesslike conversations of a few minutes or so, people may speak using the "voice" of just a single function. In longer, informal conversations between people with a low level of compatilibility, people generally get stuck in a certain voice and can't get out of it, which causes mental fatigue if the interaction lasts for more than five or ten minutes (probably as a result of certain groups of neurons temporarily depleting their resources). But in conversations between people who are highly compatible, partners usually cover a wide range of information aspects within a relatively short period, typically speaking from each function for no more than a few minutes at a time - and often for as little as 10 or 20 seconds. This creates a sensation of mental pliability and emotional flexibility (different groups of neurons are given time to renew their resources before reactivating).

Every person continually experiences various sentiments, feelings, thoughts, sensations, insights, questions, problems, etc. that build up and cause distress if they are not shared and resolved (or put in their proper perspective). Some of these are associated with feelings of confidence and personal achievement, while others evoke feelings of self-pity, guilt and self-doubt, or anger. These sentiments and realizations relate to different information aspect.

When a person has no outlet for expression of his sentiments and realizations, he begins to insert them - often ineffectively - in communication at work and elsewhere with random people. Unless these people respond in a certain "correct" way, the person is unable to develop his thought adequately and resolve the sentiment or realization. So they continue to build up. If they reach a critical level, chronic distress, accentuations, perversions, and neuroses form.

In communication between psychologically compatible partners, people are able to share their sentiments and realizations more or less freely and hop from information aspect to information aspect, expressing the most pressing or interesting sentiment of the moment. Conversations take the form of complete, multi-faceted interaction, and not merely an exchange of words on a given topic. As people touch on their current sentiments or experience across many different areas of life, partners have the chance to conveniently share more long-term sentiments and realizations on the same topic and resolve them with the other's help. When people communicate rigidly around one or two information aspects, there are rarely convenient opportunities to bring up sentiments and realizations relating to other aspects.

Dec 27, 2006

Guidelines for Finding Compatible Partners

Finding compatible partners is very easy. Really. Just follow these simple steps:

  1. Find out what behavior styles are natural for you
  2. Behave naturally
  3. Wait and see who is drawn to you
  4. Take your pick

By "natural," I mean behavior that neither causes nor results from internal discomfort. If you can tell jokes and make the crowd laugh in a relaxed frame of mind, then that is your natural behavior. If you can sit and listen quietly without feeling tense inside, then that is natural. If you feel uncomfortable and tense trying to seem interested/funny/conscientious/quiet/loud, etc. - you are behaving unnaturally. You cannot attract compatible partners in a state of tension.

Many people think they have to do something extraordinary to attract people. If acting "extraordinary" comes naturally to you, than this might be the case. However, it is untrue for everyone else. If natural behavior in a group for you usually involves sitting and doing nothing, or listening passively, believe me - there is a whole category of people who are attracted to this. Trying to be something else and creating tension inside yourself will turn off potential compatible partners who are unconsciously looking for the calm, receptive type. They are not looking for tense, unbalanced imitators.

Many people are too unsure of themselves and their prospects to wait long enough for the compatible partners to emerge out of the woodwork. They want to force things along and make things happen now - for fear that it might be their last chance. However, often the people who notice you first are not the ones who will ultimately prove to be compatible. Instead, they are the people who like the shape of your lips, or the design on your sweater, or some other random thing about you. As incompatible or semi-compatible people show interest in you, you will sense that they are unconsciously expecting a different behavior style than what is natural for you. If you cave in and try to give them that behavior, you will win the battle, but lose the war. The trouble will come later on in a relationship when you start dropping your act and behaving spontaneously.

But if you insist on acting naturally, these initial courters will soon lose interest and move on, and another set of people will gravitate towards you. These are the people who think it's cool that you left the party early because you were tired, or - on the contrary - stayed there till the last people left in order to make sure everyone was having a good time. These people have noticed and value your natural, internally relaxed behavior and see something promising in it for themselves. They'll give you clues like sitting or standing closer to you, leaning forward and mimicking your facial expressions when you talk to them, asking you questions you find perceptive, and doing other good things. If you've done a good job of being yourself, then you have almost surely found the people who are most compatible with you in the given circumstances.

Dec 26, 2006

Extraverted Ethics in Action - Robin Williams

Here's another extreme example of extraverted ethics. Playing with sounds and voice modulations like Robin Williams does constantly (and has honed to an art) are expressions of extraverted ethics.

In between extraverted ethics antics, Robin Williams talks about "amazing" people. Interviewer Charlie Rose (possibly ESE himself) notes that Williams is someone is "celebrates friendships" - a common characterization of adult ESEs. Williams (and Rose) talk a lot about the "extraordinary" stories and experiences that different people have to share that are so wonderful to learn about and record. This passion for people and great stories are characteristic of people with strong extraverted ethics.

Dec 23, 2006

Type Messages

I introduced the topic of "type messages" in April and worked on the concept a bit more in this article, hoping to flesh out the messages into type descriptions. Months passed, and I have returned to them again as part of my new type test.

The idea of a "type message" is to formulate in a few short words the principal contribution of each type to the world around him/her. Here are my current formulations:

ILE - Searching for the unknown and spreading knowledge.
SEI - Deriving enjoyment from all your activities and interactions.
ESE - Turning life into an enjoyable, beautiful experience.
LII - Structuring reality and creating correct systems of thought.
EIE - Riveting attention and energy to meaningful causes.
LSI - Establishing and overseeing correct structures and systems.
SLE - Challenging the current order and expanding influence.
IEI - Creating meaning in the events of life around you.
SEE - Acquiring social territory and influencing people.
ILI - Recognizing underlying processes and deriving benefit from them.
LIE - Achieving beneficial efficiency in all areas of life.
ESI - Recognizing and balancing people's needs and expectations.
LSE - Managing worthwhile, productive, and wholesome activities.
EII - Being exemplary and instilling ideal values.
IEE - Expanding your horizons and helping people develop.
SLI - Balanced, harmonious living and temperance.

Of course, none of these are perfect - as no short, crisp descriptions can be - but they capture something essential about each type.

Dec 22, 2006

Socionic Type Test

I have finally created a new socionics test without most of the weaknesses of my first test, but with a few new ones of its own. It only takes two to five minutes to take and consists of only three steps, so you have to think about each one carefully. You may return back at any point to review and change your previous answers.

This is the place to offer test feedback (using the "comment" feature).

LII – Logical Intuitive Introtim Type Description

The trademark quality of this type is a focus on logical, structured thought and generating true assertions and views. LIIs are typically strict thinkers who are concerned that everything fits together in a logical way. They are skilled at understanding, generating, and criticizing logical arguments and instilling their views in the people around them. Their friends know them as people with well-organized thoughts and opinions who know what they think and can elucidate their ideas to others.

In their pursuit of logical understanding, LIIs typically neglect their external social interactions and activities that would help them lighten up and experience a connection with other people. They are receptive to others’ attempts to create these fun and lighthearted situations for them. They gravitate most to people who are interested in their opinions and understanding of things, but are also skilled at organizing social interactions and creating a sense of emotional unity.

ESE – Ethical Sensing Extratim Type Description

The trademark quality of this type is a focus on socializing and guiding social situations and interactions so that the people involved can have fun and enjoy themselves. ESEs are typically in the middle of what is happening socially and know about the latest events and what people think and feel about them. They are skilled at bringing people together in fun and interesting ways and making everyone feel actively involved. Their friends know them as people who love life and feel most at home in social situations surrounded by other fun people.

In their pursuit of fun-oriented and stimulating social interactions, ESEs typically neglect to structure their own thought processes and views in a way that would help them know exactly what they think and why. They are receptive to others’ attempts to help them introduce more structure and logical consistency in their life and thinking processes. They gravitate most to people who open up to fun and emotional interaction easily, yet are also skilled at systematizing thoughts and views and explaining ideological matters.

SEI – Sensing Ethical Introtim Type Description

The trademark quality of this type is a focus on enjoyment and obtaining enjoyment from any situation and life experience. SEIs are able to skillfully derive hearty pleasure from visual stimuli, interesting and lighthearted conversations, eating and drinking, and any other day-to-day activities. They generate laughter easily and like to create a relaxing atmosphere where everyone can be themselves. Their friends know them as people who are full of emotionally-colored sensations about the world around them and are able to lighten and soften any situation.

In their pursuit of enjoyable experience, aesthetic pleasure, and a sense of inner comfort, SEIs typically neglect the development of external prospects that might bring them key opportunities in the future. They respond very well to others’ attempts to offer them new insights into their situation and help them begin new endeavors that have high potential. They gravitate most to people who are interested in experiencing the things they find enjoyable and fun, but who are also skilled at generating stimulating conversation and providing insight on the nature of the external world.

ILE - Intuitive Logical Extratim Type Description

The trademark quality of this type is the quest for new information and experience that stimulates the mind and opens up new possibilities for thought and for new endeavors. ILEs are typically drawn to things that are poorly understood or simply unknown, and to fundamental issues (needs work). They like to systematize their insights and experience and discuss them with others. Their friends know them as people who can’t help but share their insights and interesting discoveries and who always have some interesting topic on their mind.

In their service of all that is intriguing and intellectually stimulating in the outside world, ILEs typically neglect their physical needs and activities that bring pleasure and relaxation and emotional release. However, they are highly receptive to others’ attempts to help them in these areas. They gravitate most to people who are interested in hearing about their hobby topics and discussing their most frivolous insights, but who are also skilled at creating a relaxing and lighthearted atmosphere.

Duality and Dual Relations

A unique aspect of socionics is the discovery of complementary psychic structures. Jung and his followers recognized a particular attraction between individuals with certain leading functions, but these observations were not developed into a full-fledged theory. In Myers-Briggs typology there is no one recognized paradigm of intertype compatibility.

In socionics, each of the 16 socionic types has its dual type. The essence of dual relations is that the natural information output of one type is the preferred information input of the other. Having a dual or dual around stimulates one to use one's strengths more, which creates a sense of achievement and fulfillment. Even duals' mere physical presence tends to exert a calming and balancing influence. Dual relations develop around the strongest functions of each partner and keep mental, emotional, and physical functioning balanced, while directing partners' energy towards constructive and rewarding activities. This does not mean that duals never disagree or are never upset or in a bad mood. However, these are generally short-term deviations from the norm.

Intertype Relations

A basic difference between socionics and other typologies is socionics' theory of intertype relations. Socionics is not just a typology of personality or fundamental psychological characteristics, but a typology of perceptual traits that define one's relationships with others. Hence, we should not be surprised if we encounter some personality differences between individuals of the same socionic type — as long as we see that there is a similar pattern of intertype relations.

Socionics describes 16 intertype relations between each type and any other (16 including his own type). Each type has the same set of 16 relations, but with each relation corresponding to a different type. Intertype relations are determined by taking the function layout of one type and comparing it to the function layout of another. 16 possible patterns results.

Intertype relations describe the nature of interaction and information interchange between two people at a close psychological distance in terms of how partners' psychic functions interrelate. These socionic relationships range from very difficult and potentially harmful to one's self-realization to very beneficial and relaxing to the psyche. Intertype relations play a large part in one's choice of friends and informal relationships, where one tends to focus on ease of communication, pleasure, and mutual benefit (cooperation).

Socionic Types

The 16 socionic types differ on four axes (called 'dichotomies'): rationality/irrationality, extraversion/introversion, intuition/sensing, and logic/ethics. Each type has an innate preference for one pole of each of the dichotomies, making 16 possible combinations. This does not mean there is a complete absence of the opposite mechanism, however. It means that one is more flexible and multi-faceted, while the other is more rigid and simplistic. The nature of these dichotomies is best understood through a study of the actual psychic functions that they are derived from.

Although people of the same type very often display similar personal values, life strategies, interaction styles, and even facial expressions, such traits such as IQ, musical talent, sports abilities, charisma, "personal power," etc. are little related to type. A review of how socionists have typed famous people will demonstrate this. No type is inherently "predisposed" for success or failure in life. A common error of beginning students of socionics is to want to relate non-socionic traits to socionic types.

In addition, socionics does not view type as being such a rigid structure that a person can change little in life. One's positive or negative thinking patterns, overall outlook on life, and emotional health are not tied to type and are quite flexible. In fact, socionics describes in general terms what it is each type needs to become balanced and "whole." Socionic type is one of the things — along with inborn physiological traits — that does not change, even if outward behavior, emotional states, and attitudes do. Socionic type describes psychic mechanisms (patterns) so "deep" that they are difficult to gain a full awareness of, much less modify in some way (but then, why would you want to modify them??).

In upcoming posts I will start posting minimalistic type descriptions, perhaps fleshing them out over time.

Dec 21, 2006

Comments on Previous Post (Information Aspects)

The previous post (below) should be recognized as a new and definitive description of the information aspects. I would like to point out two things:

1. Logical consistency of the descriptions.
In each case the difference between the extraverted and introverted versions of each aspect is the same as for any other aspect. Extraverted aspects describe traits of objects (processes, phenomena, events) outside the observer, while introverted aspects describe - in essence - the subject's internal experience of objects (processes, phenomena, events).

More on this:
Bodies and Fields in Socionics

2. Ambiguity of linguistic clues.
Virtually any word - and sometimes entire phrases - can represent different information aspects. Our spoken or written language is not the most fundamental "language" of the psyche, but is an evolving derivation of more basic neural arrangements. Thus, to determine which aspect a word or phrase refers to, we must look at the context and, in some cases, make a subjective interpretation based on the circumstances surrounding the communication.

The Information Aspects Revisited

Let's revisit the information aspects with the help of The Semantics of the Information Aspects. First, a very brief look at what the information aspects are about (areas of overlap of both the extraverted and introverted versions of the aspect):

Intuition (extraverted intuition and introverted intuition): creating mental images
Sensing (extraverted sensing and introverted sensing): concreticizing and materializing
Logic (extraverted logic and introverted logic): the thinking process
Ethics (extraverted ethics and introverted ethics): influences on people's feelings

Now in more detail (translated material in black, my paraphrasing and commentary in red):

Intuition involves the process of creating a mental image. Images are usually described in speech through the use of metaphors and figures of speech. The more the description of an object or situation is abstracted from a multitude of concrete details - as is characteristic of image-based perception - the more complete and multi-faceted the image can be. Through the pole of intuition the individual perceives the object or situation in its wholeness and entirety and strives to translate concrete information (sensory images) into more generalized form, resulting in a perceptual vector from specific to general.

Overlapping themes:
Describing time
extraverted intuition perceives time as an external process and describes it in relatively concrete terms (indicating specific time intervals or amounts of time), while introverted intuition perceives time as an internal sensation and describes it in subjective terms (what time seems to be doing and how it feels to be in the flow of events).

Perceiving non-material aspects of reality
extraverted intuition describes guesses or insight about the external non-material world (intuitive guess, realizations, insights; motives, paradoxes, prospects), while introverted intuition describes the reflection of the external non-material world on the individual (foreseeing, imagining, anticipating; a sense of the meaningful).

Both extraverted and introverted sensing involve concreticization - emphasizing the specific characteristics and details inherent to the object or situation - resulting in a perceptual vector from general to specific.

Overlapping themes:
Describing object's concrete characteristics
extraverted sensing perceives physical traits directly, without an implied reference to the individual (size, shape, color, strength, rigidity), while introverted sensing perceives physical traits as they are experienced subjectively (objects' feel in your hand or as they come in contact with the subject through all senses).

Handling objects
extraverted sensing describes the handling of objects as an external physical act (throw, grab, stick, push, remove, fit, hit), while introverted sensing describes the experience of handling and interacting with objects (hold, rub, hug, feel, squeeze, try, stain, clean).

Assimilating space
extraverted sensing describes the physical act of assimilating an area (look around, squeeze in, get through, rearrange, put in its place, influence), while introverted sensing describes subjective experience of assimilating space (get adjusted, get cozy, make comfortable).

Needs and desires
extraverted sensing describes desires as the need to consume an external object ("I really need," "I want," "come on," "I want you to"), while introverted sensing describes the internal experience and physiological processes of satisfying one's needs and desires (processes and sensations associated with health, illness, physical exertion, sex, pleasure, eating and drinking).

Both extraverted and introverted logic describe thought processes (the process of reaching logical conclusions). Individuals with introverted logic describe to a greater degree - and, hence, are more aware of - thought processes (their own or other people's) expressed in analysis or classifications. Individuals with extraverted logic describe the external manifestations of this process - for example, one's awareness of one's actions. Both aspects involve citing or listing facts and data; in extraverted logic citing data serves to specify the subject of discussion and the order of listing is irrelevant, while in introverted logic it reflects the information's internal structure. Also in common between the aspects is the theme of discussion - expressing and substantiating one's thoughts, as well as the habit of referring to the functioning of living things (people) as if they were mechanisms.

Overlapping themes:
Clarifying information
extraverted logic essentially treats facts and data as external, autonomous objects (emphasizing facts, details, principles, algorithms, and the act of expressing them), while introverted logic perceives data in the context of its structure and organization (emphasizing constructions, models, proper organization of data, outlines, systems, and structures).

Asking clarifying questions
extraverted logic focuses on the what and the how of facts and data, while introverted logic focuses on the why - the logical basis of assertions.

Substantiating one's own and others' conclusions
extraverted logic focuses on the external proof of assertions - facts, examples, illustrations, concrete data and its interpretation - while introverted logic focuses on internal proofs of the logic of statements and the consistency of logical principles applied.

Both extraverted and introverted ethics describe influencing and influences on people's feelings through vocabulary such as offend, make happy, enthrall, infuriate, scare, get interested. It appears that individuals with strong extraverted and introverted ethics emphasize somewhat different aspects of this influence: the former are focused on external action as a way of changing the emotional atmosphere (saying or doing something), whereas the latter are focused on changes in the subject's emotional state and feelings as a result of this impact.

The same is true of emotional states. Extraverted ethics emphasizes external manifestations (facial expressions, gestures, words), while introverted ethics emphasizes internal feelings, though the theme itself is a part of both aspects. Also, all ethical types are prone to personification - the "animation" of unliving things ("bad computer!" "the computer is acting up again," "this fence doesn't seem to want to fall over; it's still alive"). The field of ethical aspects also includes evaluatory or emotionally charged oaths, for example "creep" or "mean person."

Overlapping themes:
Verbs describing relationships between people
extraverted ethics describes external manifestations of relationships (meet, date, make friends, be friends, flirt, break up, make up, break off, suck up), while introverted ethics describes the subject's experience of relationships (be grateful, admire, love, fall in love, hate, be offended, be embarrassed, value).

Verbs describing influencing feelings
extraverted ethics focuses on the external (observable) actions associated with emotional interaction (excite, praise, get going, hurt, fool, offend, cheer up, scare, make laugh, comfort, calm down), while introverted ethics focuses on internal feelings (trouble, get tired of, make nervious, offend, let down, scare, irritate, make mad, make upsent, calm). Note that the same words can be used, but with a different emphasis.

Abstract nouns for expressing emotions
extraverted ethics focuses on visible emotional states (edginess, gloominess, breakdown, boredom, quietness, ecstasy, horror, panic, enthusiasm, sarcasm), while introverted ethics focuses on internal feelings (guilt, unrest, delight, pride, annoyance, fright, love, hate, hurt, feeling, shame, embarrassment).

Adverbs describing how actions are performed and one's attitude toward them
extraverted ethics, again, focuses on visible emotional attitudes (gladly, dismally, wonderfully, half-heartedly, discreetly, sarcastically), while introverted ethics focuses on internal attitudes (frankly, honestly, dishonestly, decently, in a friendly way, in a good way, in a bad way, tactfully, tactlessly).

Real-life Phrases of ILIs and IEIs

In a previous post I tried to compose statements of my own that reflect a introverted intuition semantic emphasis. I'm not sure how successful they were because they were contrived, not spontaneous. Here I'm going to gather some examples of introverted intuition phrases from the16types forum. Since this forum is focused on theoretical discussion of socionics, most of its members do not wax particularly poetic or reflective in a way that might bring introverted intuition to the forefront. Nonetheless, there are clear differences in the lexical emphasis of different types within the common topic of discussion.

Similarities and differences between introverted intuition and extraverted intuition will be discussed in a later post.

1. The following set was gathered from this thread (my commentary in red):

  • I suppose...
  • in the spirit of...
  • in general...
  • it's like I...
  • I tend to feel most held back by...
  • it sounds as if...
  • I guess it's a matter of interpretation...
  • but then again...
  • the thing I still find mysterious is...
  • it would appear that...
  • but somehow...
  • understand how you perceive the issue...
  • so it sounds as if you're saying...
  • perhaps you might associate X as being...
  • I'd like to be able to see if...
  • X is inclined to...
  • it seems perhaps that...

Dominant introverted intuition themes: uncertainty, perceiving an image, interconnectedness, associations

Comments: These phrases reflect the process of generating an image. This image is never complete, but ever remains in a state of uncertainty, with hints of more connections and possible implications always arising. Categorical and unambiguous statements are absent, as these would reflect a state of certainty and finality that is foreign to introverted intuition. Instead, phenomena are described as likelihoods ("inclined to," "tend," "perhaps," etc.). The statements here reflect the ability to deal with contradictions easily and bring these contradictions out into the open without passing judgment - or making a final choice between them.

Functions or Aspects?


- - - - - - - - - -

In socionics we have an interesting situation where it is perfectly logical to say, for example:

"introverted logic perceives introverted logic"

The first introverted logic is referring to introverted logic as a function of the psyche - introverted logic. The second introverted logic is referring to the information aspect "introverted logic". The difference between the "two introverted logics" is that the first is a characteristic of the psyche, whereas the second is a characteristic of external reality.

The world around us can be seen as "emitting" signals of different natures that are picked up by our psyche. In this way, we can say, "he was sending strong introverted logic signals." Of course, it is also the introverted logic function that picks up introverted logic signals, and the introverted logic function that sends them (if it's a living thing)!

For Jung - an introtim - functions were a characteristic of the psyche alone. For Augusta - an extratim - the signals picked up by Jung's psychic functions were actually objective characteristics of external reality. Now we have both approaches! :)

- - - - - - - - - -

Actually, it's even more complicated. There are 8 information aspects which describe characteristics of external reality. Next, there are 8 functions numbered 1 to 8. Each function has its own characteristics regardless of which information aspect the function perceives in each type structure (i.e. the base function or any other function can be described independently of the information aspect it corresponds to).

- - - - - - - - -

EDIT 1/22/2007:

In the process of translating more of The Dual Nature of Man, I found that Augusta addressed this ambiguity herself. Partway into point 5, she states, "Thus, in the process of information metabolism one uses eight IM elements, each of which reflects one of the objective aspects of reality." Next, in the chart she has the headings "Aspect of reality reflected," "Name of characteristic of psyche or IM element by which one obtains information about given aspect of reality," and "Symbol of aspect of reality and corresponding element."

In other words, we can avoid ambiguity by following Augusta's approach:
1. Aspects (of reality) are "objective characteristics of [external] reality"
2. IM (information metabolism) elements are psychological characteristics (modules, receptors, etc.) that perceive different aspects of reality
3. Functions are numbered 1-8 and are characteristics of the socionic model of the psyche ("Model A"). In each type model each function has its own IM element.

No. 1 and 2 can be denoted by a symbol (e.g. extraverted sensing), while functions are denoted by a number or a name (e.g. "leading function").